UPA implemented several key policies during its tenure from 2004 to 2014

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The United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government, led by the Indian National Congress party, implemented several key policies during its tenure from 2004 to 2014. Here are some of the notable policies and initiatives undertaken by the UPA government:

  1. Rural Development and Employment Generation:
    • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA): This flagship program aimed to provide 100 days of guaranteed wage employment to rural households.
    • Bharat Nirman: A program focused on developing rural infrastructure, including roads, housing, irrigation, and electrification.

  2. Social Welfare Schemes:
    • Right to Information Act (RTI): Enacted in 2005, this act empowered citizens to access information from public authorities, promoting transparency and accountability.
    • National Food Security Act: Aimed to provide subsidized food grains to approximately two-thirds of India’s population.
    • Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY): A health insurance scheme for below-poverty-line families, providing cashless hospitalization benefits.

  3. Education and Skill Development:
    • Right to Education Act (RTE): Mandated free and compulsory education for children between the ages of 6 and 14.
    • National Skill Development Mission: Launched to create a skilled workforce by promoting vocational training and skill development programs.

  4. Economic Reforms and Growth:
    • Continuation of economic liberalization policies initiated in the 1990s, including further opening up of sectors to foreign direct investment (FDI).
    • Implementation of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) to streamline indirect taxes and create a unified market.
    • Initiatives to promote manufacturing, such as the National Manufacturing Policy and the Make in India campaign.

  5. Infrastructure Development:
    • Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM): Aimed at improving urban infrastructure and basic services in cities.
    • Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY): A rural road construction program to connect remote villages with all-weather roads.

  6. Energy and Environment:
    • National Rural Electrification Program: Focused on providing electricity to rural areas and households.
    • National Action Plan on Climate Change: Outlined principles and strategies to address climate change through sustainable development.

  7. Foreign Policy and Security:
    • Strengthening relations with neighboring countries and major powers, including the United States (Civil Nuclear Deal) and China.
    • Initiatives to combat terrorism and enhance national security, such as the establishment of the National Investigation Agency (NIA).

It’s important to note that while the UPA government implemented these policies, some of them faced criticism and challenges in implementation. Additionally, the effectiveness and impact of these policies are subject to ongoing debates and evaluations.

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