What is Battle of Buxar. what were the causes and consequences of Battle of Buxar.

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Title: Understanding the Battle of Buxar: Causes and Consequences

The Battle of Buxar, fought on 22nd October 1764, marks a significant milestone in the colonial history of India. It unfolded at Buxar, a small town located near the confluence of the Ganges and Ghaghara rivers, in modern-day Bihar. This military conflict, primarily between the British East India Company led by Hector Munro and the combined armies of Mir Kasim, the ousted Nawab of Bengal, Mughal emperor Shah Alam II, and Shuja-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Awadh, was a decisive venture that generated far-reaching consequences. UPSC aspirants must focus on this pivotal event to gain comprehensive insight into the dynamics of colonial India.

Causes of the Battle of Buxar:

1. Conflict of Interests: The battle was fundamentally a power struggle over controlling territories and their resources. The British were gradually cementing their foothold in India, which was largely perceived as a threat by the regional rulers.

2. Alleged Misrule of Mir Kasim: The British were disgruntled with Mir Kasim’s rule in Bengal. They accused him of defying their economic interests and causing unrest. Mir Kasim, on the other hand, sought to reclaim his autonomy from the British interference.

3. Treaty Disagreements: The Battle of Buxar came into fruition largely due to the disapproval of the Treaty of Allahabad, signed in 1765. The nawabs and the Mughal emperor saw this treaty, which solidified British supremacy, as a violation of their sovereignty.

Consequences of the Battle of Buxar:

1. Establishment of British Dominance: The British victory in this battle effectively ended the independent rule in Bengal, Bihar, and Odisha. The areas came under the administration of the East India Company, marking the inception of their territorial rule in India.

2. Demise of Mughal Power: The Battle of Buxar marked the final blow to the collapsing Mughal Empire in India. With the emperor under British protection, real power shifted entirely in favour of the British.

3. Revenue Collection: Post the battle, as per the Treaty of Allahabad, Robert Clive obtained the Diwani rights for Bengal, Bihar, and Odisha – leading the British to become the fiscal administrators of these provinces.

4. Rising Animosity: This battle sparked off animosity between Indian rulers and the British, leading to a series of uprisings and battles in the subsequent years.

5. Irrevocable Changes: The consequences of this battle brought enduring changes to India’s political, economic, and social structure, laying the foundation for the establishment of British rule over the entire Indian subcontinent for nearly two centuries.

Thus, the Battle of Buxar not just signifies a major military encounter but also epitomizes the tectonic shift in India’s socio-political scenario during the colonial era. It underscores the beginning of the true British dominion, highlighting a monumental transition in the history of India. Therefore, UPSC aspirants should study this episode meticulously, understanding its causes and consequences to gain an informed perspective on the complexities of colonial India.

Prince Luthra (UPSC CSE AIR 577)

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