Pre 1857 Struggles – Modern Indian History

Pre 1857 Struggles – Modern Indian History

Pre 1857 Struggles – Modern Indian History: Here we provide you Pre 1857 Struggles – Modern Indian History, Notes plays important role in the UPSC examination. To read the full chapter from Notes is quite difficult, so we make small and effective Pre 1857 Struggles – Modern Indian History.

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Pre 1857 Struggles – Modern Indian History Notes:

Pre 1857 Struggles

Why people resisted?

  • The company was interested in making money and extracting revenue, but No one was listening to the grievances of people.
  • Colonial land revenue settlement was the biggest predicament.
  • The artisans and the handicraft persons were demotivated.
  • The indigenous industry was discouraged.
  • Even the priestly class was not happy with the British rule.

Pre 1857 Struggles - Modern Indian History

Pre 1857 Struggles - Modern Indian History

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Peasant movements (Religious Touch)

  1. Naxalberia movement: Muslim tenants rose against landlords who were largely Hindus.  Titu Mir was the leader of the group.  This uprising is also referred to as the first armed peasant Uprising.
  2. Pagalpanthis: Hajong and Garo tribes organized under the leader name Tipu to fight the exploitative zamindars. They refused to pay the rent.
  3. Faraizi movement: It was founded by Haji Shariyat Allah. The objective was to expel English intruders from the region of Bengal.
  4. Moplah Uprising: The major cause was the increase in revenue demand and a reduction in the field size. The Hindu Muslim struggle was also experienced in this uprising.

The revolts by tribal

  • It was largely in the mainland tribal Revolt region as well as the Frontier tribal revolts concentrated in the North-Eastern region.
  • Tribal were losing their land and outsiders were entering their territory.
  •  Britishers introduced the concept of reserved forest which curtailed many activities of tribal people.
  •  Missionary activities also created disturbances in the region.
  •  Tribals were not concerned with National struggle they just wanted political autonomy.
  •  They used to see outsiders as an enemy but not all of them were treated equally.
  •  The money lenders and traders were majorly targeted by the tribal people.
  •  Massiah-like figures emerged but tribal lost due to outdated arms and ammunition.

Chuar Uprising 1766

  •  Land revenue was enhanced due to famines.
  •  These tribal took arms against the Britishers in the jungle Mahal of Midnapore district.
  •  They were farmers and Hunters by profession.
  •  They also indulged in violent activities.
  •  This uprising was violently suppressed by the British Empire.
  •  It is also known as a revolt of jungle Mahal.

Kol mutiny 1831

  •  This mutiny covered the region of Ranchi and Hazaribagh.
  •  The precursor was large scale transfer of land from tribals to outsiders like farmers and money lenders.
  •  The outsiders were burnt alive in a violent protest.
  •  A large-scale military operation was started to establish peace.

Munda Uprising 1899

  •  It was against the farming revenue policy.
  •  The Mundas in Ranchi rose under the leadership of Birsa Munda.
  •  This uprising is also referred as the Ulgulan movement.
  •  Mundas were against zamindars, forest contractors and money lenders who were exploiting them.
  •  Munda considered Chotanagpur as their area.

Santhal rebellion 1855

  •  They were the agricultural people who settled near the Rajmahal Hills.
  •  They were against the exploitative practices of zamindars and the money lenders.
  •  This rebellion turned into an anti-British struggle at a later stage.
  •  Sidhu and Kanhu were the two brothers who were the leaders of this rebellion.

Ramos Rising 1822

  • They were the tribal people from the Western Ghat.
  • They were never comfortable with the British administrative system.
  • The British policy of annexation was opposed by these tribals.
  • When the British defeated Marathas and captured their territory these tribals also lost their
  • Chittoor Singh was the leader of this Rising.

What were the weaknesses of people uprising?

  • They were local in character. The national spirit was missing.
  • Local grievances were the underlying theme of such revolts.
  • The leadership was backward-looking.
  • The methods used were archaic in nature. The weapons used by people were rudimentary.

Sepoy mutiny

  • Even the sepoy who were working under the British Empire also retaliated against them.
  • Mis-treatment by the Britishers.
  • Discrimination in promotion and payment.
  • There was no Foreign Service allowance for Indians.
  • Religious objection.

 Some of the important Sepoy mutinies

  • 47th native infantry in 1824
  • Grenadier company in Assam revolted in 1825
  • Indian Regiment at Solapur started a mutiny in 1838
  • 34th infantry did the mutiny in 1844

The Great Revolt of 1857

  • Different sections of Indian society including Zamindar, traders, peasants, artisans, and sepoys were disgruntled with the British system.
  • This is the very reason that pre-1857 there were various small revolts.

There were various reasons for causes for the revolt of 1857

1. Economic causes

  • The peasantry class was exploited to the extent they could not recover.
  • Both peasants and tribals were under the clutches of money lenders and traders.
  • Artisans lost their market and patronage by kings and princes.
  • The entire handicraft industry was destroyed by the machine produce products of British assembly line.
  • In Awadh, taluqdars estates were confiscated.

2. Political causes

  •  Subsidiary Alliance
  •  Doctrine of lapse
  •  Right of succession was denied to Hindu princes.

3. Administrative causes

  •  The British administration was utterly corrupt.
  •  Many people say that the corruption we see today is a Legacy of British rule.

3. Socio religious causes

  •  British used to consider themselves as racially superior.
  •  Christian missionaries were destroying the very fabric of the society.
  •  Socio religious reforms like widow remarriage, banning of Sati and child marriage disappointed a large section of the society.

4. Sepoys  dissatisfaction

  •  They were not treated equally.
  •  Their salary was not equal

Unfolding of revolt

  •  It all started with the reports about mixing of bone Dust in Atta.
  •  The new rifle cartridge was wrapped in Grease, believed to consist of beef and pork.
  • The revolt began in Meerut on May 10th 1857.
  • 19th native infantry at Berhampur refused to use the rifle’s cartridge.
  • 34th native infantry Mangal Pandey fired at Sergeant Major of his unit at Barrackpore.
  •  One after the other many native infantries refused to use the greased cartridge.
  • The sepoys came to Delhi and pleaded before Bahadur Shah II to lead the revolt.
  •  Bahadur Shah was not willing to lead it in the beginning, however later he agreed.
  •  He wrote letters to nearby kings and princes to join and support the revolt.
  •  Many of such kings and princes did not join instead help the Britishers overcoming the revolt.
  •  However, the Civil population joined and supported the revolt with its full might.
  •  From money lenders to zamindars, from presents to artisans everyone participated in the revolt wholeheartedly.


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