Pre 1857 Struggles – Modern Indian History
Pre 1857 Struggles – Modern Indian History
Pre 1857 Struggles – Modern Indian History: Here we provide you Pre 1857 Struggles – Modern Indian History, Notes plays important role in the UPSC examination. To read the full chapter from Notes is quite difficult, so we make small and effective Pre 1857 Struggles – Modern Indian History.
Pre 1857 Struggles – Modern Indian History Notes:
Pre 1857 Struggles
Why people resisted?
- The company was interested in making money and extracting revenue, but No one was listening to the grievances of people.
- Colonial land revenue settlement was the biggest predicament.
- The artisans and the handicraft persons were demotivated.
- The indigenous industry was discouraged.
- Even the priestly class was not happy with the British rule.
Peasant movements (Religious Touch)
- Naxalberia movement: Muslim tenants rose against landlords who were largely Hindus. Titu Mir was the leader of the group. This uprising is also referred to as the first armed peasant Uprising.
- Pagalpanthis: Hajong and Garo tribes organized under the leader name Tipu to fight the exploitative zamindars. They refused to pay the rent.
- Faraizi movement: It was founded by Haji Shariyat Allah. The objective was to expel English intruders from the region of Bengal.
- Moplah Uprising: The major cause was the increase in revenue demand and a reduction in the field size. The Hindu Muslim struggle was also experienced in this uprising.
The revolts by tribal
- It was largely in the mainland tribal Revolt region as well as the Frontier tribal revolts concentrated in the North-Eastern region.
- Tribal were losing their land and outsiders were entering their territory.
- Britishers introduced the concept of reserved forest which curtailed many activities of tribal people.
- Missionary activities also created disturbances in the region.
- Tribals were not concerned with National struggle they just wanted political autonomy.
- They used to see outsiders as an enemy but not all of them were treated equally.
- The money lenders and traders were majorly targeted by the tribal people.
- Massiah-like figures emerged but tribal lost due to outdated arms and ammunition.
Chuar Uprising 1766
- Land revenue was enhanced due to famines.
- These tribal took arms against the Britishers in the jungle Mahal of Midnapore district.
- They were farmers and Hunters by profession.
- They also indulged in violent activities.
- This uprising was violently suppressed by the British Empire.
- It is also known as a revolt of jungle Mahal.
Kol mutiny 1831
- This mutiny covered the region of Ranchi and Hazaribagh.
- The precursor was large scale transfer of land from tribals to outsiders like farmers and money lenders.
- The outsiders were burnt alive in a violent protest.
- A large-scale military operation was started to establish peace.
Munda Uprising 1899
- It was against the farming revenue policy.
- The Mundas in Ranchi rose under the leadership of Birsa Munda.
- This uprising is also referred as the Ulgulan movement.
- Mundas were against zamindars, forest contractors and money lenders who were exploiting them.
- Munda considered Chotanagpur as their area.
Santhal rebellion 1855
- They were the agricultural people who settled near the Rajmahal Hills.
- They were against the exploitative practices of zamindars and the money lenders.
- This rebellion turned into an anti-British struggle at a later stage.
- Sidhu and Kanhu were the two brothers who were the leaders of this rebellion.
Ramos Rising 1822
- They were the tribal people from the Western Ghat.
- They were never comfortable with the British administrative system.
- The British policy of annexation was opposed by these tribals.
- When the British defeated Marathas and captured their territory these tribals also lost their
- Chittoor Singh was the leader of this Rising.
What were the weaknesses of people uprising?
- They were local in character. The national spirit was missing.
- Local grievances were the underlying theme of such revolts.
- The leadership was backward-looking.
- The methods used were archaic in nature. The weapons used by people were rudimentary.
- Even the sepoy who were working under the British Empire also retaliated against them.
- Mis-treatment by the Britishers.
- Discrimination in promotion and payment.
- There was no Foreign Service allowance for Indians.
- Religious objection.
Some of the important Sepoy mutinies
- 47th native infantry in 1824
- Grenadier company in Assam revolted in 1825
- Indian Regiment at Solapur started a mutiny in 1838
- 34th infantry did the mutiny in 1844
The Great Revolt of 1857
- Different sections of Indian society including Zamindar, traders, peasants, artisans, and sepoys were disgruntled with the British system.
- This is the very reason that pre-1857 there were various small revolts.
There were various reasons for causes for the revolt of 1857
1. Economic causes
- The peasantry class was exploited to the extent they could not recover.
- Both peasants and tribals were under the clutches of money lenders and traders.
- Artisans lost their market and patronage by kings and princes.
- The entire handicraft industry was destroyed by the machine produce products of British assembly line.
- In Awadh, taluqdars estates were confiscated.
2. Political causes
- Subsidiary Alliance
- Doctrine of lapse
- Right of succession was denied to Hindu princes.
3. Administrative causes
- The British administration was utterly corrupt.
- Many people say that the corruption we see today is a Legacy of British rule.
3. Socio religious causes
- British used to consider themselves as racially superior.
- Christian missionaries were destroying the very fabric of the society.
- Socio religious reforms like widow remarriage, banning of Sati and child marriage disappointed a large section of the society.
4. Sepoys dissatisfaction
- They were not treated equally.
- Their salary was not equal
Unfolding of revolt
- It all started with the reports about mixing of bone Dust in Atta.
- The new rifle cartridge was wrapped in Grease, believed to consist of beef and pork.
- The revolt began in Meerut on May 10th 1857.
- 19th native infantry at Berhampur refused to use the rifle’s cartridge.
- 34th native infantry Mangal Pandey fired at Sergeant Major of his unit at Barrackpore.
- One after the other many native infantries refused to use the greased cartridge.
- The sepoys came to Delhi and pleaded before Bahadur Shah II to lead the revolt.
- Bahadur Shah was not willing to lead it in the beginning, however later he agreed.
- He wrote letters to nearby kings and princes to join and support the revolt.
- Many of such kings and princes did not join instead help the Britishers overcoming the revolt.
- However, the Civil population joined and supported the revolt with its full might.
- From money lenders to zamindars, from presents to artisans everyone participated in the revolt wholeheartedly.