Mughal Empire – Spectrum History Notes
Mughal Empire – Spectrum History Notes
Mughal Empire – Spectrum History Notes: Here we provide you Mughal Empire – Spectrum History Notes, Notes plays important role in the UPSC examination. To read the full chapter from Notes is quite difficult, so we make small and effective Mughal Empire – Spectrum History Notes.
Causes of Decline of the Mughal Empire
- The process of disintegration of the Mughal Empire began during the reign of Aurangzeb, but it picked up momentum only after his death in 1707.
- Zamindars and Nobles started turning against the emperor. Mughals tried to curtail the power of zamindars but failed. They started carving out their own kingdoms.
- Many Nobles started challenging the empire. They were given the Jagirs to maintain which now were fragmenting.
- Many regional powers like Jaats, Sikhs and Marathas emerged which challenged the very authority of Mughals.
- The religious policies of Aurangzeb also played a role in the decline.
- Aurangzeb’s religious policy was largely responsible, leading to revolts by Rajputs, Sikhs, Jats and Marathas.
- Aurangzeb’s Deccan policy was a complete failure and was an important cause of the downfall of the Mughal empire.
Rise of Regional States
- Many of these states maintain good relations with Mughal authority.
- Even rebel chieftains of the Marathas and Sikhs recognised the Mughal emperor as the supreme authority.
- These rulers were quite strong to challenge Mughal authority but they were not powerful enough to replace it.
The rise of British Power
- Different historians have their different time phase which they think was the beginning point of britishers.
- Some consider 1740 as an appropriate time when Anglo French struggle for supremacy started in India.
- Some consider 1757 when British got the success in battle of Plassey as the starting point.
- Then there are historians who consider 1761 as the watershed year when Maratha got defeated in 3rd battle of panipat by Ahmed Shah Abdali.
Causes of British Success in India?
- Britishers had a superior army and better military equipments.
- The British army was more disciplined compared to the army of regional kingdoms.
- The army had a regular salary structure which was a motivation factor.
- The rank in the administration was given on the basis of merit not on the basis of religion or caste.
- Clive, Warren Hastings, Elphinstone, Munro, Marquess of Dalhousie were the most able first line leaders.
- British had robust financial backup.
How British conquest Bengal?
- Bengal was one of the richest province.
- It also included the adjacent areas of Bihar and Odisha.
- British establish their factories in Balasore, Hooghly, Kasimbazar, Patna and Dacca.
- Company got the permission to trade in lieu of rupees 3000.
- Murshid Quli Khan, Shujauddin, Alivardi Khan were the able rulers of Bengal.
- Bengal was also not disturbed by invasions by other powers like marathas or Nadir Shah due to its location.
- Due to commercial interest, a conflict was seen between Bengal government and East India company.
- From 1757 to 1765 was the period when a gradual power shift was seen from Bengal government to britishers.
- Alivardi Khan Was particularly apprehensive of britishers because of what they did in karnatic region.
- After Alivardi Khan, his grandson Siraj-ud-Daula came on the seat.
- Siraj Was deceived by his commander Mir Jafar and his treasury Jagat Seth, Omichand, Rai Ballabh, Rai Durlabh.
Battle of Plassey
- The company officials started misusing of trade privileges which damaged the finances of nawab.
- British also started fortifying their settlements without the nawabs permission.
- Robert Clive brought his forces from Madras to Calcutta.
- British used diplomacy and forged a secret alliance with Mir Jafar, Rai Durlabh, Jagat Seth (an influential banker of Bengal) and Omichand.
- So, Plassey was a war which was never fought and the Britishers won with treachery.
- After the battle, Siraj was killed and Mira Jafar was made the nawab of Bengal.
- Mir Jafar was increasingly irritated by the interference of Clive.
- Jafar Conspired with Dutch to eliminate britishers. However, British is eliminated Mir Jafar and replaced him with Mir Qasim.
- Mir Qasim Was a competent ruler and he shifted his capital from murshidabad to Munger in Bihar.
Battle of Buxar
- Mir Qasim Was not willing to become the puppet of British Empire.
- He was also perturbed by Ram Narayan who was the governor of Bihar and supported by britishers.
- Dastak was also misused by company officials which led to loss of tax revenue to the Bengal.
- Mir Qasim joined an alliance with Nawab of Awadh and Shah Alam II.
- This alliance was collectively defeated by britishers and Mir Jafar was once again made the nawab of Bengal.
- In 1765 Treaty of Allahabad was signed as a result.
- East India company became the true master or Bengal.
- Dual system of government was introduced by Robert Clive – Diwani and Nizamat.
- The puppet nawab had older responsibility but no authority whatsoever because all the authority and power was appropriated by britishers.
- So, the job of nawab was to maintain law and order.
- Warren Hastings did away with the dual system in 1772.
Mysore vs Britishers
- Mysore emerged as a noticeable power when Hyder Ali took the charge and the leadership.
- Britishers saw Mysore as a threat to their expansionist policy.
- Hyder Ali though uneducated was a competent ruler.
- He countered Marathas and forged alliance with French.
- Haidar Ali took the help of the French to set up an arms factory at Dindigul.
- Haidar Ali raided the Marathas a number of times during 1774-76 and recovered all the territories.
1st Anglo Mysore War
- British, Maratha and Nizam sided on one side against Hyder Ali.
- This war continued for 18 months but there was no conclusion.
- Finally, Treaty of Madras was signed which was in favor of Hyder Ali.
2nd Anglo Mysore War
- British did not comply with Treaty of Madras which led to this war.
- Haidar faced the English boldly only to suffer a defeat at Porto Novo.
- Treaty of Mangalore was signed after this.
3rd Anglo Mysore War
- This war was as a result of rivalry between Travancore and Tipu Sultan. English supported Travancore. Tipu was finally defeated even after initial victories.
- Treaty of Seringapatnam was signed.
4th Anglo Mysore War
- Tipu fulfilled all the terms of the Treaty of Seringapatam and got his sons released.
- Tipu refused to place Wodeyar’s minor son on the throne and declared himself sultan.
- Tipu was defeated first by English General Stuart and then by General Harris.
- As the Mughal Empire declined, one of the staunchest and hardiest of the empire’s adversaries, the Marathas, got a chance to rise in power.
- Though the Third Battle of Panipat (1761), in which they were defeated by Ahmad Shah Abdali, changed the situation.
- Marathas were divided internally.
1st Anglo Maratha War
- After the death of Madhavrao in 1772, his brother Narayanrao succeeded him as the fifth peshwa. However, Narayanrao’s uncle, Raghunathrao, had his nephew assassinated and named himself as the next peshwa.
- Narayanrao’s widow, Gangabai, gave birth to a son after her husband’s death who was supported by
- Raghunath Rao took the shelter under britishers and a Treaty of Surat was signed.
- As per the treaty, British protected Raghunath Rao.
- British fought Maratha army at Pune.
- Marathas had a bigger number while the britishers had better ammunition.
- Mahadji Sindhia was a competent general. He followed a scorched earth policy.
- The English surrendered by mid-January 1779 and signed the Treaty of Wadgaon.
2nd Anglo-Maratha War
- Jaswant defeated the armies of the Peshwa and Sindhia decisively at Hadapsar near Poona to avenge his brother’s death.
- Under treaty of Bassein, Peshwa received a native infantry of 6000 from company and surrendered the city of Surat.
3rd Anglo-Maratha War
- Many Maratha Leaders were not happy with Treaty of Bassein.
- The Peshwa attacked the British Residency at Poona.
- English retaliates with all their might.
- The Peshwa was defeated at Khirki, Bhonsle at Sitabuldi, and Holkar at Mahidpur.
Why Maratha Lost?
There were various reasons for Maratha’s defeat.
- The lack of leadership was one of the reasons. Later Maratha leaders Bajirao II, Daulatrao Sindhia and Jaswantrao Holkar were worthless leaders.
- The outlook of Maratha was not progressive. They did not pay much attention on the administration.
- Marathas lost to britishers because the latter had better diplomatic skills. Marathas on the other hand had very less or no information about their enemies.
- Marathas did not have a stable political setup.
- Marathas lacked a good economy policy to generate revenue.
- They were inferior to English in the area of military system.
- They lacked cooperative spirits. They would keep on fighting with each other.
Conquest of Punjab
|12 important misls|
Ahluwaliya, Bhangi, Dallewalia, Faizullapuria, Kanhaiya, Krorasinghia, Nakkai, Nishaniya, Phulakiya, Ramgarhiya Sukharchakiya, and Shaheed.
- After the murder of the last Sikh guru, Guru Govind Singh, a section of Sikhs under the leadership of Banda Bahadur revolted against the Mughals during the rule of Bahadur Shah.
- In 1715, Banda Bahadur was defeated by Farrukhsiyar and put to death in 1716.
- Invasion by Ahmed Shah Abdali also created troubles in Punjab.
- The sikh empire was divided in 12 misls or state.
- Ranjit Singh emerged as the competent ruler.
- Ranjit Singh was the son of Mahan Singh, the leader of the Sukarchakiya misl.
- Treaty of Amritsar was signed between Ranjit Singh and Britishers.
- River Sutlej was accepted as the boundary line for his dominions and the Company’s.
1st Anglo Sikh War
- The sikh army crossed the River Sutlej on December 11, 1845.
- English took it as a reason to attack Sikhs.
- British had 30000 soldiers while the Sikhs had 50000.
- The treachery of Lal Singh and Teja Singh caused five successive defeats to the Sikhs.
- The Sikhs signed a humiliating treaty the Treaty of Lahore (1846)
- War indemnity of more than 1 crore of rupees was to be given to the English.
2nd Anglo Sikh War
- Mulraj was the governor of Multan. He was replaced by a new Sikh Governor.
- Mulraj revolted and he murdered 2 english officers.
- The then Governor-General of India- Lord Dalhousie, a hardcore expansionist, got the pretext to annex Punjab completely.
British Administrative Policy
British followed a two-pronged strategy viz. War and Diplomacy to consolidate their position in india.
The policy of Ring Fence
- Warren Hastings came up with this policy.
- It aimed at creating buffer zones to defend the Company’s frontiers.
- It was used against Marathas and Mysore.
- Wellesley’s policy of subsidiary alliance was, in fact, an extension of the ring-fence system.
- The subsidiary alliance system was used by Lord Wellesley.
- The Indian ruler had to agree to the posting of a British resident in his court.
- The Indian ruler could not employ any European in his service without the prior consultation with the Company.
- The Indian rulers could not negotiate with any other Indian ruler without consulting the governor-general.
Doctrine of Lapse
- It was the brainchild of Lord Dalhousie.
- As per this doctrine, adopted son could be the heir to his foster father’s private property, but not the state.
- The doctrine was stated to be based on Hindu law and Indian customs.
- Following states were captured through Lapse – Stara (1848), Jhansi, and Nagpur (1854). The other small states included Jaitpur (Bundelkhand), Sambalpur (Orissa), and Baghat (Madhya Pradesh).