IITM- Earth System Model (ESM) | UPSC CURRENT AFFAIRS |
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IITM- Earth System Model (ESM) : Current Affairs
IITM- Earth System Model (ESM)
Relevance: Science and Technology
Context: Recently, the Union Minister of State for Science and Technology has declared that the Government has developed an indigenous climate model to predict the impact of climate change on monsoon in the country known as IITM-ESM.
- It is an Earth System Model (ESM) that has been developed at the Centre for Climate Change Research (CCCR), Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) under the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES).
- It is a state-of-the-art climate model with components of the atmosphere, ocean including deep ocean circulation, Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice, and ocean biogeochemistry.
- It has the capabilities to address key questions concerning the science of climate change, including reliable projections of the global and regional climate, Indian monsoon, hydrological cycle, sea-level changes, etc.
- It is the first climate model from South Asia that has contributed to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) sixth assessment report (AR6).
Salient features of the IITM-ESM
- It has capabilities for conducting long-term climate change studies such as:
- Radiatively balanced framework.
- South Asian Monsoon.
- Marine biogeochemistry.
- Polar sea-ice distribution.
- Land use and land cover changes.
What is Earth System Model (ESM)?
- They are important tools that allow us to understand and quantify the physical, chemical & biological mechanisms governing the rates of change of elements of the Earth System, comprising of the atmosphere, ocean, land, cryosphere, and biosphere.
- ESMs are useful for enhancing our fundamental understanding of the climate system, its multi-scale variability, global and regional climatic phenomena, and making projections of future climate change.
Ensemble Prediction Systems (EPS)
- The new EPS system was developed by three bodies: the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF), and the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology.
- The new EPS’s most notable feature is its excellent resolution for short- to medium-range weather forecasts. The new system will reduce the spatial resolution (currently 23 km grid scale) to 12 km. This would aid in the distribution of district-level warnings and the forecasting of extreme weather events as early as five days.