All about Drainage System & Drainage system in Indian
The flow of water from artificial or natural well-defined channels is called drainage & the network of those water channels is called Drainage System. The drainage system consists of a Large & small River system.
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Drainage Pattern depends upon:
- The geological time
- Nature & structure of rocks
- Amount of water flow
- Periodicity of the flow
Drainage Basin: The area drained by a single river system is called a drainage basin.
Water divide: any elevated area separating two drainage systems is called a water divide. Such as mountains.
- Dendritic pattern: the drainage patterns look like the branches of a tree is known as the dendric drainage pattern. It is quite a common pattern of a drainage system. For example, River of Northern plain.
- Trellis Pattern: when the primary tributaries of the river flow parallel to the secondary tributary & meet approx. at the right angle then this form of the pattern is known as trellis pattern. It develops where a hard & soft rock exists. for example, rivers in the upper part of the Himalayan region & in the old, folded mountain of the singhabhoom (Chota Nagpur plateau)
- Rectangular pattern: it is developed on a strongly jointed rocky terrain. In this, both the river & its tributaries show right angle bend but it’s different from trellis as it is irregular & the tributary streams are not as long or as parallel as in trellis drainage. For example, Colorado River (USA).
- Radial Pattern: The radial pattern develops when streams flow in different directions from a mountain or central peak or a dome-like structure for example Narmada, son, Mahanadi.
Drainage System in India:
The drainage system in India divided into: –
- The Himalayan drainage system
- The peninsular drainage system
The Himalayan Drainage system:
- Most of the Himalayan River is perennial. It means they have water throughout the year. They received water from the Glacier, springs & rains the whole year.
- Different geographical features are:
- Youthful stage-in Himalayas it is highly tortuous, it is carving out the erosional landforms like a waterfall, cataracts, rapids, gorges.
- Mature stage –in plains it shifts their courses & tendency & they form depositional features like flat valleys, ox-bow lakes, flood plains, braided channels, and deltas near the river mouth.
- The Himalayan drainage system comprises of all the international rivers of India.
The Major river systems of the Himalaya are
- The Indus river system:
- It is one of the largest river basins of the world
- It originated in the Tibetan plateau near Mansarovar lake
- It enters India in the Ladakh. Several tributaries, the Zaskar, the Nubra, the Shyok, and the Hunza, join it in the Kashmir region
- The Ganga River system:
- Bhagirath’ is fed by the Gangotri Glacier and joined by the Alaknanda at Devaprayag in Uttarakhand.
- Yamuna, gandak, ghaghar & kosi are some of the tributaries of ganga
- Farakka in West Bengal is the northernmost point of the Ganga delta.
- In Bangladesh, it joined with Brahmaputra & known as Meghna.
- The Brahmaputra river system:
- The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet east of Mansarovar lake very close to the sources of the Indus and the Sutlej
- The peninsular drainage systemIt flows eastward reaching the Namcha Barwa (7757 m) Here, it is called the Dihang, and it is joined by the Dibang, the Lohit
- The peninsular drainage system is older than the Himalayan one
- The main water divide in Peninsular India is formed by the Western Ghats, which runs from north to south close to the western coast
- Most of the major rivers except Narmada & Tapi of the Peninsula such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, and the Kaveri flow eastwards and drain into the Bay of Bengal.
- Narmada & Tapi flows east to westward into the Arabian sea.
Facts about the peninsular River:
|S. No||RIVER||SOURCE||MAIN TRIBUTARIES|
|1||Mahanadi||Dandakaranya, Chhattisgarh||Ib, Mand, Hasdo, Seonath, on Junk & Tel|
|2||Godavari||Trimbak plateau, Nashik, Maharashtra||Penganga, Wardha, Wainganga, Indravati, Sabari, Pranhita|
|3||Krishna||Near Mahabaleshwar||Koyna, Ghataprabha, Bhima, Musi, Muneru, Tungabhadra|
|4||Kaveri||Taal Kaveri (W. Ghats)||Herangi, Hemavati, Lakpavni, Shimsa, Arkavati, Kabani, Bhavani Suvanavati & Amravati|
|5||Narmada||Amarkantak plateau||Hiran, Orsang, Barna, Kolar, Burhner, Banjar, Ishar, Shakhar, Tawa, Kundi|
|6||Tapi||Multai in Betul (M.P)||Purna, Betul, Patkai, Ganjal, Dhatranj, Bokad, Amravati|
Note: Locate all these rivers in the atlas
Basics of India:
- Size & Location
- India Is a south Asian country that lies on Asia Continent.
- India is the 7th largest country in terms of area, it covers 4% Area( 32,87,263 sq. km)
- India lies entirely in the Northern hemisphere
- India is a vast country; its Longitude & latitude extent are as follows:
- Longitudinal extension: 68⁰ 7’ to 97⁰25’ East.
- Latitudinal extension: 8⁰ 4’ to 37⁰6’ North. The southern boundaries have two values. Mainland boundary – 8° 4’ N and Southernmost point of India is 6°45’N in Nicobar island. This lower point is called “Indira Point”. (see map)
- The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep & Andaman & Nicobar Islands is 7517 km (out of which 6100 km contained within the mainland).
Indian standard time:
IST is based on longitude 82.5°, which passes through Mirzapur, near Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh.
- The implication of the Longest coastline
Ans. Mining natural Resources– Apart from fisheries there are plenty of natural resources available from the oceanic plants. There can be a possibility of mining and extracting the resources from the sea.
- people living along the coastline have the opportunity to find work, during a major part of the year; challenges are many but they are willing to face it cheerfully
- the cultural and social life of the people is rich but different from that of those on the mainland
- climatic disturbances and disasters are frequent visitors to the coastline, tsunami
- Managing/Monitoring the long coastline is a difficult activity, if not impossible.
- An enemy can move in and out of the mainland, at great convenience.
- he can bring destructive materials and equipment’s on to the mainland
- illegal trafficking of people, harmful drugs, etc.
- Transport by Sea is a cheaper mode than other modes; it is easy to export/import goods by sea; the ports at major centers — Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Goa, Mangalore, and others very busy ports; they promote trade to a great extent;
- Tourism —longest coastline will help to attract domestic & foreign tourists which will lead to boost the economy.
India has 28 states & 9 Union territories. Ladakh & Jammu & Kashmir is the newest UT made on 31st October 2019.
International Borders of India:
Wagah Border, Punjab: India-Pakistan
Moreh, Manipur: India-Myanmar
Nathu La Pass, Sikkim: India-China
Longewala, Rajasthan: India-Pakistan
Dawki-Tambil, Meghalaya: India –Bangladesh
Rann of Kutch, Gujarat: India-Pakistan
Pangong Lake, Ladakh : India-China
Sunnauli Border, UP: India-Nepal
Dhanushkodi, TamilNadu: India-Srilanka
Jaigaon, West Bengal: India-Bhutan
Four Corners of India:
Siachen Glacier (J&K): Northernmost point
Kanyakumari (TN): Southernmost point of Indian mainland
Kibith (Arunachal Pradesh: Easternmost point
West of Ghaur Mota (Gujarat): Westernmost Point
- India shares the longest border with Bangladesh of 4096 km.
- Red cliff line –India Pakistan boundary
Durand Line –Pakistan Afghanistan boundary
- Ten Degree Channel separated Island of Andaman & Nicobar
- Longest Coastline: Gujarat,1600 km
- Largest Brackish Water Lake: Chilika Lake –Odisha
- Largest Plateau: Deccan Plateau
- Highest Waterfall: Jog Falls on Sharavati River (Karnataka) Height 253 m.