All about Drainage System & Drainage system in Indian

Drainage system

The flow of water from artificial or natural well-defined channels is called drainage & the network of those water channels is called Drainage System. The drainage system consists of a Large & small River system.

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Drainage Pattern depends upon:

  • The geological time
  • Topography
  • Slope
  • Nature & structure of rocks
  • Amount of water flow
  • Periodicity of the flow

Drainage Basin: The area drained by a single river system is called a drainage basin.

Water divide: any elevated area separating two drainage systems is called a water divide. Such as mountains.

Drainage Patterns:

  1. Dendritic pattern: the drainage patterns look like the branches of a tree is known as the dendric drainage pattern. It is quite a common pattern of a drainage system. For example, River of Northern plain.
  2. Trellis Pattern: when the primary tributaries of the river flow parallel to the secondary tributary & meet approx. at the right angle then this form of the pattern is known as trellis pattern. It develops where a hard & soft rock exists. for example, rivers in the upper part of the Himalayan region & in the old, folded mountain of the singhabhoom (Chota Nagpur plateau)
  3. Rectangular pattern: it is developed on a strongly jointed rocky terrain. In this, both the river & its tributaries show right angle bend but it’s different from trellis as it is irregular & the tributary streams are not as long or as parallel as in trellis drainage. For example, Colorado River (USA).
  4. drainage-system


  5. Radial Pattern: The radial pattern develops when streams flow in different directions from a mountain or central peak or a dome-like structure for example Narmada, son, Mahanadi.

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Drainage System in India:

The drainage system in India divided into: –

  1. The Himalayan drainage system
  2. The peninsular drainage system

The Himalayan Drainage system:

  • Most of the Himalayan River is perennial. It means they have water throughout the year. They received water from the Glacier, springs & rains the whole year.
  • Different geographical features are:
  • Youthful stage-in Himalayas it is highly tortuous, it is carving out the erosional landforms like a waterfall, cataracts, rapids, gorges.
  • Mature stage –in plains it shifts their courses & tendency & they form depositional features like flat valleys, ox-bow lakes, flood plains, braided channels, and deltas near the river mouth.
  • The Himalayan drainage system comprises of all the international rivers of India.

The Major river systems of the Himalaya are

  1. The Indus river system:
  • It is one of the largest river basins of the world
  • It originated in the Tibetan plateau near Mansarovar lake
  • It enters India in the Ladakh. Several tributaries, the Zaskar, the Nubra, the Shyok, and the Hunza, join it in the Kashmir region
  1. The Ganga River system:
  • Bhagirath’ is fed by the Gangotri Glacier and joined by the Alaknanda at Devaprayag in Uttarakhand.
  • Yamuna, gandak, ghaghar & kosi are some of the tributaries of ganga
  • Farakka in West Bengal is the northernmost point of the Ganga delta.
  • In Bangladesh, it joined with Brahmaputra & known as Meghna.
  1. The Brahmaputra river system:
  • The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet east of Mansarovar lake very close to the sources of the Indus and the Sutlej
  • The peninsular drainage systemIt flows eastward reaching the Namcha Barwa (7757 m) Here, it is called the Dihang, and it is joined by the Dibang, the Lohit


  • The peninsular drainage system is older than the Himalayan one
  • The main water divide in Peninsular India is formed by the Western Ghats, which runs from north to south close to the western coast
  • Most of the major rivers except Narmada & Tapi of the Peninsula such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, and the Kaveri flow eastwards and drain into the Bay of Bengal.
  • Narmada & Tapi flows east to westward into the Arabian sea.

Facts about the peninsular River:

1 Mahanadi Dandakaranya, Chhattisgarh Ib, Mand, Hasdo, Seonath, on Junk & Tel
2 Godavari Trimbak plateau, Nashik, Maharashtra Penganga, Wardha, Wainganga, Indravati, Sabari, Pranhita
3 Krishna Near Mahabaleshwar Koyna, Ghataprabha, Bhima, Musi, Muneru, Tungabhadra
4 Kaveri Taal Kaveri (W. Ghats) Herangi, Hemavati, Lakpavni, Shimsa, Arkavati, Kabani, Bhavani Suvanavati & Amravati
5 Narmada Amarkantak plateau Hiran, Orsang, Barna, Kolar, Burhner, Banjar, Ishar, Shakhar, Tawa, Kundi
6 Tapi Multai in Betul (M.P) Purna, Betul, Patkai, Ganjal, Dhatranj, Bokad, Amravati

Note: Locate all these rivers in the atlas

Indian Geography

Basics of India:

  • Size & Location
  • India Is a south Asian country that lies on Asia Continent.
  • India is the 7th largest country in terms of area, it covers 4% Area( 32,87,263 sq. km)
  • India lies entirely in the Northern hemisphere
  • India is a vast country; its Longitude & latitude extent are as follows:
  • Longitudinal extension: 68⁰ 7’ to 97⁰25’ East.
  • Latitudinal extension: 8⁰ 4’ to 37⁰6’ North. The southern boundaries have two values. Mainland boundary – 8° 4’ N and Southernmost point of India is 6°45’N in Nicobar island. This lower point is called “Indira Point”. (see map)
  • The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep & Andaman & Nicobar Islands is 7517 km (out of which 6100 km contained within the mainland).


 Indian standard time:

IST is based on longitude 82.5°, which passes through Mirzapur, near Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh.

  1. The implication of the Longest coastline

Ans.  Mining natural Resources– Apart from fisheries there are plenty of natural resources available from the oceanic plants. There can be a possibility of mining and extracting the resources from the sea.

  • people living along the coastline have the opportunity to find work, during a major part of the year; challenges are many but they are willing to face it cheerfully
  • the cultural and social life of the people is rich but different from that of those on the mainland
  • climatic disturbances and disasters are frequent visitors to the coastline, tsunami
  • Managing/Monitoring the long coastline is a difficult activity, if not impossible.
    • An enemy can move in and out of the mainland, at great convenience.
    • he can bring destructive materials and equipment’s on to the mainland
    • illegal trafficking of people, harmful drugs, etc.
  • Transport by Sea is a cheaper mode than other modes; it is easy to export/import goods by sea; the ports at major centers — Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Goa, Mangalore, and others very busy ports; they promote trade to a great extent;
  • Tourism —longest coastline will help to attract domestic & foreign tourists which will lead to boost the economy.

Administrative Divisions:

India has 28 states & 9 Union territories. Ladakh & Jammu & Kashmir is the newest UT made on 31st October 2019.



International Borders of India: 

Wagah Border, Punjab: India-Pakistan

Moreh, Manipur: India-Myanmar

Nathu La Pass, Sikkim: India-China

Longewala, Rajasthan: India-Pakistan

Dawki-Tambil, Meghalaya: India –Bangladesh

Rann of Kutch, Gujarat: India-Pakistan

Pangong Lake, Ladakh : India-China

Sunnauli Border, UP: India-Nepal

Dhanushkodi, TamilNadu: India-Srilanka

Jaigaon, West Bengal: India-Bhutan

Four Corners of India:

Siachen Glacier (J&K): Northernmost point

Kanyakumari (TN): Southernmost point of Indian mainland

Kibith (Arunachal Pradesh: Easternmost point

West of Ghaur Mota (Gujarat): Westernmost Point

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Important Facts:

  • India shares the longest border with Bangladesh of 4096 km.
  • Red cliff line –India Pakistan boundary

Durand Line –Pakistan Afghanistan boundary

  • Ten Degree Channel separated Island of Andaman & Nicobar
  • Longest Coastline: Gujarat,1600 km
  • Largest Brackish Water Lake: Chilika Lake –Odisha
  • Largest Plateau: Deccan Plateau
  • Highest Waterfall: Jog Falls on Sharavati River (Karnataka) Height 253 m.






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