5th April 2021 | UPSC Current Affairs
5th April Current Affairs MCQs
Context: Prime Minister has greeted the people of Odisha on Utkala Dibasa.
More on News:
- Odisha Day, also known as Utkala Divas and Utkala Dibasa, is celebrated on April 1 every year.
- On April 1, 1936, Odisha became a separate province, after a long struggle of over three centuries.
- The formation of Orissa province under British rule, separated from Bengal and Bihar, marked the beginning of a new journey for the state.
- Later, the name was changed from Orissa to Odisha.
Exercise Shantir Ogroshena 2021
Context: Indian army has participated in a multinational exercise in Bangladesh: exercise shantir Ogroshena-2021.
More on News:
- The exercise is also known as ‘Front Runner of the Peace’.
- It was held in Bangladesh to commemorate the birth centenary of Bangladesh ‘Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahmanand mark glorious 50 years of liberation.
- The DOGRA Regiment of the Indian Army has participated in the exercise along with a contingent of the Royal Bhutan Army, Sri Lankan Army, and Bangladesh Army.
- The theme of the exercise is “Robust Peace Keeping Operations”.
- Military observers from the USA, UK, Turkey, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Singapore had attended the exercise.
Relevance: Government Schemes and Initiatives
Context: Ministry of Education has launched the “MyNEP2020” Platform of National Council for Teacher Education
About MyNEP 2020:
- The platform seeks to invite suggestions/inputs/membership from the stakeholders for preparing a draft for the development of National Professional Standards for Teachers (NPST) and National Mission for Mentoring Program membership (NMM).
- The platform will be operational from 1stApril 2021 to 15th May 2021.
- This exercise of digital consultation envisages the participation of teachers, education professionals, academicians, & other stakeholders in preparing the documents on teacher policy for sustainable and positive change in the Teacher’s Education Sector.
Credit Guarantee Scheme for Subordinate Debt (CGSSD)
Relevance: Government Schemes and Initiatives
Context: Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSME) has extended the CGSSD up to September 2021.
- The scheme was launched in 2020 to provide credit facilities through lending institutions to the promoters of stressed MSMEs.
- The main objective of this scheme is to facilitate loans (personal loans) through banks to the promoters of stressed MSMEs for infusion as equity/quasi-equity in the business eligible for restructuring as per RBI guidelines.
- The maximum sub-debt eligible under the scheme is equivalent to 15 percent of his/ her existing stake (equity plus debt) or ₹75 lakh, whichever is lower as per the last balance sheet.
9th Heart of Asia-Istanbul Process (HoA-IP) ministerial conference
Relevance: International Relations
Context: Minister of External Affairs has attended the 9th HoA-IP ministerial conference in Tajikistan.
- The HoA-IP was founded on November 2nd, 2011 in Istanbul, Turkey.
- It is a part of the Istanbul Process – a regional initiative on security and cooperation for a stable and peaceful Afghanistan.
- This platform was established to address the shared challenges and interests of Afghanistan and its neighbours and regional partners.
- The Heart of Asia is comprised of 15 participating countries, 17 supporting countries, and 12 supporting regional and international organizations.
- Participating countries: Afghanistan, India, Azerbaijan, China, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Tajikistan, Turkey, UAE, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan
3rd Joint Logistics Node (JLN) in Mumbai
Context: Chief of Defence Staff operationalized and dedicated to the Services 3rd JLN in Mumbai.
More on News:
- These JLNs will provide integrated logistics cover to the Armed Forces for their small arms ammunition, rations, fuel, general stores, civil hired transport, aviation clothing, spares, and also engineering support to synergise their operational efforts.
- This initiative would accrue advantages in terms of saving of manpower, economise utilisation of resources, besides financial savings.
- The JLN would enhance joint inter-operability between the Services and go a long way in improving the logistics processes of the Armed Forces.
Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Program (PMEGP)
Context: Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) has recorded its best-ever performance in job creation under the PMEGP.
- PMEGP is a credit-linked subsidy programme launched by the Ministry of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises.
- The scheme is implemented by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) functioning as the nodal agency at the national level.
- At the state level, the scheme is implemented through State KVIC Directorates, State Khadi and Village Industries Boards (KVIBs), District Industries Centres (DICs), and banks.
- The scheme aims to promote the generation of employment opportunities through the establishment of micro-enterprises in rural as well as urban areas.
- Any individual, above 18 years of age.
- The beneficiaries should have passed at least VIII standard, for setting up of project costing above 10 lakhs in the Manufacturing Sector and above Rs. 5 lakhs in the business /Service Sector.
- Self Help Groups (including those belonging to BPL provided that they have not availed benefits under any other Scheme).
- Institutions registered under Societies Registration Act, 1860.
- Production Co-operative Societies.
- Charitable Trusts.
- The scheme is applicable to all viable (technically as well as economically) projects in rural as well as urban areas, under the Micro enterprises’ sector.
- The maximum cost of the project admissible under the manufacturing sector is 25 lakhs and the business/services sector is RS.10 lakhs.
- Only one person from the family is eligible for obtaining financial assistance under the scheme.
- Assistance under the Scheme is available only for new projects.
- The assistance under the scheme will not be available to activities indicated in the negative list under the scheme.
- The beneficiaries will be identified & selected at the district level by a Task Force consisting of representatives from KVIC/State KVIB/ State DICs and Banks and headed by the District Magistrate / Deputy Commissioner / Collector
47thGroup of seven (G7) Summit
Relevance: International Groupings
Context: India takes part in the second Sherpa’s meeting of G7, guest countries.
More about G7
- It is an intergovernmental organization that was formed in 1975.
- The bloc meets annually to discuss issues of common interest like global economic governance, international security, and energy policy.
- The G-7 does not have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters. The decisions taken by leaders during annual summits are non-binding.
- G-7 is a bloc of industrialized democraciese., France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, and Canada.
- The G7 was known as the ‘G8’ for several years after the original seven were joined by Russia in 1997.
- The Group returned to being called G7 after Russia was expelled as a member in 2014 following the latter’s annexation of the Crimea region of Ukraine.
- There are no G7 members from Africa, Latin America, or the southern hemisphere.
- India earlier participated in the 45th summit of G7.
- As of 2020, the G7 represents 58% of the global net wealth ($317 trillion), more than 46% of the global gross domestic product (GDP) based on nominal values, and more than 32% of the global GDP based on purchasing power parity.
- The seven countries involved are also the largest IMF-advanced economies in the world.
The Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED)
Relevance: Government bodies
Context: TRIFED has recently entered a Memorandum of Understanding with the Administration of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu for the implementation of the Minimum Support Price (MSP) for Minor Forest Produce (MFP) Scheme and the Van Dhan Yojana.
More about TRIFED
- It came into existence in 1987. It is a national-level apex organization functioning under the administrative control of the Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
- The ultimate objective of TRIFED is the socio-economic development of tribal people in the country by way of marketing development of the tribal products.
- TRIFED acts as a facilitator and service provider for tribes to sell their product.
- The approach by TRIFED aims to empower tribal people with knowledge, tools, and a pool of information so that they can undertake their operations more systematically and scientifically.
- It also involves capacity building of the tribal people through sensitization, formation of Self-Help Groups (SHGs), and imparting training to them for undertaking a particular activity.
- It mainly undertakes two functions viz. Minor Forest Produce (MFP) development and Retail Marketing and Development.
- MFP includes all non-timber forest produce of plant origin and includes bamboo, canes, fodder, leaves, gums, waxes, dyes, resins, and many forms of food including nuts, wild fruits, honey, lac, tusser, etc.
Context: The intensity of cyclones, hurricanes, and typhoons might increase in the next century due to global warming, a new joint British-American study has said.
More about Tropical cyclone
- Cyclones are rapid inward air circulation around a low-pressure The air circulates in an anticlockwise direction in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere.
- Tropical cyclones develop in the region between the Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer.
- They are large-scale weather systems developing over tropical or subtropical waters, where they get organized into surface wind circulation.
- Tropical Cyclones are one of the most devastating natural calamities in the world.
- Tropical cyclones originate and intensify over warm tropical oceans. The conditions favourable for the formation and intensification of tropical storms are:
- Large sea surface with a temperature higher than 27° C.
- Presence of the Coriolis force.
- Small variations in the vertical wind speed.
- A pre-existing weak low-pressure area or low-level-cyclonic circulation.
- Upper divergence above the sea level system.
Nomenclature of Tropical Cyclones
- The naming of tropical cyclones is a recent phenomenon. The process of naming cyclones involves several countries in the region and is done under the aegis of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
- For the Indian Ocean region, a formula for naming cyclones was agreed upon in 2004. Eight countries in the region – Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Thailand – all contributed a set of names that are assigned sequentially whenever a cyclonic storm develops.
Worldwide Terminology of Tropical Cyclones
- They are given many names in different regions of the world – e.g., they are known as Typhoons in the China Sea and the Pacific Ocean; Hurricanes in the West Indian islands in the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean; Tornados in the Guinea lands of West Africa and southern USA.; Willy-willies in north-western Australia and Tropical Cyclones in the Indian Ocean.
- Coriolis force
An apparent force arises because the earth spins around its axis. Freely-moving objects are deflected to the right of their direction of motion in the northern hemisphere and to the left of their direction of motion in the southern hemisphere.
Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)
Relevance: International Groupings
Context: External affairs minister took part in the 17th Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) ministerial meeting, which comprises seven countries.
More about BIMSTEC
- It is a regional multilateral organization. Its members lie in the littoral and adjacent areas of the Bay of Bengal constituting a contiguous regional unity.
- BIMSTEC not only connects South and Southeast Asia, but also the ecologies of the Great Himalayas and the Bay of Bengal.
Formation of BIMSTEC
- This sub-regional organization came into being in 1997 through the Bangkok Declaration.
- Initially, it was formed with four Member States with the acronym ‘BIST-EC’ (Bangladesh, India, Sri-Lanka, and Thailand Economic Cooperation).
- It became renamed ‘BIMST-EC’ in 1997, following the inclusion of Myanmar.
- With the admission of Nepal and Bhutan in 2004, the name of the grouping was changed to ‘Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC).
Importance of BIMSTEC
- With a combined gross domestic product (GDP) of 7 trillion economies, BIMSTEC Member States have been able to sustain an average 6.5% economic growth trajectory in the last five years.
- Kaladan Multimodal Project – links India and Myanmar.
- Asian Trilateral Highway – connecting India and Thailand through Myanmar.
- Bangladesh-Bhutan-India-Nepal (BBIN) Motor Vehicles Agreement – for seamless flow of passenger and cargo traffic.
Relevance: International Relations
Context: Prime Minister recently visited Bangladesh, held a delegation-level meeting with his Bangladeshi counterpart.
More about India and Bangladesh
- India was one of the first countries to recognize Bangladesh and establish diplomatic relations immediately after its independence in December 1971.
- Various Joint exercises of the Army (Exercise Sampriti) and Navy (Exercise Milan) take place between the two countries.
- The India-Bangladesh Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) came into force following the exchange of instruments of ratification in June 2015.
- India and Bangladesh share 54 common rivers. A bilateral Joint Rivers Commission (JRC) has been working since June 1972.
- Bangladesh is part of the Bangladesh-Bhutan-India-Nepal (BBIN) initiative Motor Vehicles Agreement, The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC), ,
- Chilahati-Haldibari railway link has been a significant move in enhancing connectivity between the countries.
- Rooppur atomic energy project is an Indo-Russian project in Bangladesh. Under it, India will provide personnel training, consultation support, and participate in the construction and erection activity and noncritical materials supply to the site in Bangladesh.
- Teesta is an important transboundary river between both India and Bangladesh
- Teesta river is a tributary of the Brahmaputra (known as Jamuna in Bangladesh), flowing through India and Bangladesh.
- It originates in the Himalayas near Chunthang, Sikkim and flows to the south through West Bengal before entering Bangladesh.
- Teesta river water conflict is one of the most contentious issues between India and Bangladesh.
Chief Justice of India (CJI)
Relevance: Constitutional bodies
Context: Justice Nuthalapati Venkata Ramana is set to become the next Chief Justice of India.
More about CJI
- The chief justice of India is the chief judge of the Supreme Court as well as the highest-ranking officer of the Indian federal judiciary.
- The Constitution of India grants power to the President of India to nominate, and with the advice and consent of the Parliament of India, appoint a chief justice, who serves until they reach the age of sixty-five or until removed by President.
- As head of the Supreme Court, the chief justice is responsible for the allocation of cases and appointment of constitutional benches which deal with important matters of law.
- On the administrative side, the chief justice carries out the following functions: maintenance of the roster; appointment of court officials, and general and miscellaneous matters relating to the supervision and functioning of the Supreme Court.
- Article 124(4) of the Constitution of India lays down the procedure for removal of a judge of the Supreme Court which applies to chief justices as well.
Removal Procedure for judges of the supreme court
- A judge of the Supreme Court can be removed from his office by an order of the president. The President can issue the removal order only after an address by Parliament has been presented to him in the same session for such removal. The address must be supported by a special majority of each House of Parliament (i.e., a majority of the total membership of that House and a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of that House present and voting).
- The grounds of removal are two–proved misbehaviour or incapacity.
- The Judges Enquiry Act (1968) regulates the procedure relating to the removal of a judge of the Supreme Court by the process of impeachment
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