25th October daily Current Affairs
Deadline for I-T returns extended
Why in News?
The government has further extended the date for filing income tax returns for the financial year 2019-20.
For taxpayers who need to get accounts audited or furnish reports on specific domestic or international transactions, the deadline is now January 31, 2021.
Classification of Taxes
Broadly taxes are divided into two categories:
- Direct Taxes
- Indirect Taxe
- A direct tax can be defined as a tax that is paid directly by an individual or organization to the imposing entity (generally government). A direct tax cannot be shifted to another individual or entity. The individual or organization upon which the tax is levied is responsible for the fulfillment of the tax payment.
- The Central Board of Direct Taxes deals with matters related to levying and collecting Direct Taxes and formulation of various policies related to direct taxes.
- A taxpayer pays a direct tax to a government for different purposes, including real property tax, personal property tax, income tax or taxes on assets, FBT, Gift Tax, Capital Gains Tax, etc.
NRIS quota in NLUs an affront to meritorious candidates: Orissa HC
Why in News?
Observing that Non-Resident Indian Sponsored (NRIS) category reservation is an affront to meritorious candidates, the Orissa High Court has called upon the Bar Council of India and other stakeholders to revisit the process of admission to National Law Universities (NLUs).
NRI Quota in Technical Education
- Supreme Court has ruled that Private colleges and institutions that offer professional and technical courses have a complete discretion to do away with their Non-Resident Indian (NRI) quota of seats.
- The judgment quoted from the Constitution Bench verdict in the Inamdar case, which said the term ‘NRI’ in relation to admissions was itself a “misnomer”.
- “Neither the students who get admissions under this category nor their parents are NRIs.
- In effect and reality, under this category, less meritorious students, but who can afford to bring more money, get admission.
- The money brought by such students enables the educational institutions to strengthen its level of education and also to enlarge its educational activities”.
- The verdict also referred to the seven-judge Bench decision in P.A. Inamdar, which held that 15% NRI quota was “not compulsory” but “only potential”.
- That was why the court had suggested limiting the quota to 15%.
- As per the recent judgement Candidates under the quota cannot assert their right to be admitted, says court in a judgment
- The colleges could completely eliminate the NRI quota for 2020-21 academy year.
NCR’s annual battle for clear skies begins
Why in News ?
In neighbouring Gurugram, antismog guns at construction sites, a dedicated air monitoring cell, and night patrolling are some of the new initiatives taken by the Gurugram pollution control board to tackle the rising levels of pollution.
What is it?
- Anti-smog gun is a device that sprays nebulised water droplets into the atmosphere to reduce air pollution.
- Connected to a water tank and mounted on a vehicle, the device could be taken across the city to spray water to settle dust and other suspended particles.
- It can spray water up to a height of 50 metres and the results were positive as the spray acts like rain and settles dust particles and also PM 2.5.
‘Shudh Ke Liye Yudh’ core team
Why in News?
CM Ashok Gehlot has formed a core group for ‘Shudh Ke Liye Yudh’ campaign, which will be launched from October 26 to November 14. The core group will have senior officers at district level including the collector, who will inspect quality of milk, spices etc.
What is Adulteration?
Adulteration of food cheats the consumer and poses a serious risk to health. Adulterant means any material which is or could be employed for making the food unsafe or substandard or misbranded or containing extraneous matter. Adulterated food is dangerous because it may be toxic and can affect health and it could deprive nutrients essential for proper growth and development.
Adulterants can broadly be classified it into three categories:
Intentional Adulterants: The adulterants are added as a deliberate act with intention to increase profit. They add sand, marble, stones, mud, etc.
Incidental Adulterants: Adulterants are found in food due to negligence, ignorance or lack of proper facilities. It includes pesticide residues, droppings of rodents, etc.
Metallic Contaminants: When the metallic substances are added intentionally or accidentally such as Arsenic, Lead, etc.
Risks of Adulterated Food
Some companies adulterate food as a consequence of intentional actions, often designed to increase profitability or cut corners. Others end up adulterating food unintentionally because of lax standards and regulations. Either way, adulterated food costs the Indian economy around 1.17 lakh crore in 2017-18 and comes with some significant risks for human consumption:
Food Impurity – First, food may end up being “impure” or may contain ingredients it wasn’t intended to contain. This could be anything from residue of pesticides to metal or glass, or even a completely different substance.
Contamination – Adulterated food may have a higher likelihood of becoming contaminated at a later date, such as decomposing or becoming infected with bacteria.
Allergens – Mislabeled or misrepresented products may contain allergens that consumers aren’t aware of. If the wrong person consumes one of these products, they may suffer a severe allergic reaction.
Nutritional Needs – Adulterated food may also lead people to believe they’re getting nutritional needs when they aren’t. This is especially important for infants, children, and adolescents, who need adequate intake and sufficient vitamins and minerals for healthy growth.
PM inaugurates three Gujarat projects
Why in News?
Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Saturday inaugurated three projects in his home State of Gujarat — one each related to farmers’ welfare, healthcare, and tourism development — via video-conferencing from New Delhi.
Mr. Modi launched the ‘Kisan Suryodaya Yojana’ aimed at providing day-time electricity to farmers in the State for irrigation and farming. The second project he inaugurated was a paediatric heart hospital at the U.N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Centre in Ahmedabad, developed with an investment of ₹470 crore by the State’s Health Department.
The third project launched was a 2.3-km-long ropeway project on Mount Girnar in Junagadh city, a major pilgrimage site. The ropeway project is being touted as the longest temple ropeway in Asia. The ropeway has been developed by Usha Breco Limited at an investment of ₹130 crore.
In his address on the occasion, Mr. Modi said, “The world-class ropeway will make it convenient for more people to visit Girnar. Earlier, it used to take five-seven hours to climb Girnar, but now it will take only seven-eight minutes. More devotees and tourists will visit Girnar. It will give a boost to adventure activities. I am also happy that the project will create more employment opportunities for local youth.”
The Girnar ropeway is a state-of-the-art passenger ropeway comprising 25 cabins, including one glass-floored cabin, each having the capacity to carry eight passengers at a time. It can ferry 800 people in an hour, and 8,000 in a day.
On the Kisan Suryodaya scheme, Mr. Modi said, “Farmers should save water and adopt the mantra ‘per drop, more crop’.” He also stressed on using technology to boost production.
How are mathematical models being used to predict the dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus?
Why in News ?
The India National Supermodel Committee, constituted by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and consisting of mathematicians, computer scientists and medical professionals, recently announced that India had passed its ‘COVID19 peak’ in September and that active infections by the SARSCoV2 virus would fall to a ‘minimal’ level by February. The conclusions were arrived at with the help of a mathematical model.
What is the ‘National Supermodel’?
When the DST said in May that it had convened a group to track the evolution of the pandemic, it viewed the ‘supermodel’ as one that would aggregate the ‘best of’ existing mathematical models, and hence the name. From February to March, when the relative numbers of infections were low everywhere in the world except China, scientists began estimating the beginning and the course of the pandemic in their countries through mathematical modelling. Using differential equations, that show how multiple variables, such as infections and deaths vary with respect to one another on different
parameters, modellers try to estimate the fraction of the population which is infected at a particular point in time.