15th November UPSC Current Affairs

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Assam’s  Border Dispute shifted to Nagaland

Why in news? Assam-Mizoram border disputes were in the news few days back and after a semblance of normalcy on Assam Mizoram border, five Assamis based organization belongs to Karbi Anglong district have threatened to impose an economic blockade against Nagaland.  Key Points:
  • Lotha and Tangkhul tribal people of Nagaland have been encroaching upon areas inside the Daldali Forest Reserve in Karbi Anglong district, Assam.
  • These tribal groups are supported by the Nagaland Administration.
  • They are demanding if the Assam and Nagaland government do not meet to resolve the border issue then they will enforce the blockade. 
  • Forest officials also have raised their concern over encroachment by  people of Nagaland by removing pillars demarcating the 512.1km border between the two states.
What does Nagaland react? The Nagaland government has denied “illegal occupation” of land in Assam.
What is Assam-Mizoram Border dispute?    Current reason behind disputes: Few days back the residents of Lailapur village in Assam’s chachar district clashed with the residents of Mizoram live in Kolasib district. 
  • Due to this clash Assam-Border witnessed firing over a disputed territory which led a long standing inter-state boundary tussle between the Assam and Mizoram. 
  • Mizoram’s people blamed ‘illegal Bangladeshis’ migration from Assam side. 
Background:
    • Border issues between the Assam and Mizoram is not new but it is carrying on from the days  back to the  colonial era when the inner lines were demarcated according to the administrative needs of British rule.
  • Even after the states created in Independent India the issues could not dilute and as aresults both states continue to have a differing perception. 
  • Mizoram was granted a status of states in 1987 under the State  Mizoram Act 1986
  • And Assam was formed in 1950 and due to emergence of new states from  its territory, it lost much of its territory to new states between 1960s to 1970s. 
  •  The roots of the disputes originates from the year 1875 when a notification that differentiated Lushai Hills from the Chachar of Assam and in this sequence another notification of 1933 that demarcates a boundary between Lushai Hills and Manipur.
  • During the time of British rule the Mizoram was known as Lushai Hills a district of Assam.
Why boundary tussle?
  • Mizoram does not believe in boundary demarcation on the basis of notification of 1933  instead Mizoram demand boundary should be demarcated on the basis of notification of 1875 which is derived from the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation Act 1873.
  • While Assam government follows the boundary demarcation notification of 1933 which is the main point of tussle.
Assam-Mizoram Border: Assams’s Barak valley formed a boundary with Mizoram and the length of the border in present is 165 km long. Point to remember is that both states are border with Bangladesh. Points to remember for prelims: Karbi Anglong, Lushai hills, Lotha and Tangkhul tribes of Nagaland , Barak valley and its location. Sources: The Hindu and Indian Express   Try Free Mock Test -  upsc 2021 Try today's current affairs MCQs on Netmock 

New Species of Vine snakes

Why in news? A team of researchers from the Centre for Ecological Sciences (CES), Indian Institute of Science (IISc) have discovered new species of vine snakes.   Important points:
  • The researchers team have collected morphological data, tissues samples and specimens to understands the patterns of distribution and diversification of vine snakes. 
  • As per the researchers, the vine snakes are known to be among the most common snakes in peninsular India found even in many peri-urban areas and in the Western Ghats. 
  • Asian Vine snakes distributed throughout the continents and they are belongs to the genus Ahaetulla and the recently described as Prohaetulla
  • Common green vine snakes (Ahaetulla nasuta) in India is complex of several species.
Four distinct small bodied and short nosed species of vine snakes:
  • Northern Western Ghats vine snakes which is named as Ahaetulla borealis
  • Fransworth’s  vine snakes (Ahaetulla fransworthi)
  • Malabar vine snake (Ahaetulla malabarica)
  • Wall’s vine snake (Ahaetulla isabellina)
  • These species of snakes found in the Western Ghats rainforests alone.
  • These species of snakes are superficially similar in their morphology but separated by geographic or ecological barriers.
Other species of vine snakes Travancore vine snakes  named as Ahaetulla travancorica separated by morphology and geography barrier from the Gunther’s vine snake Ahaetulla dispar. One species found in Sri Lanka named as Ahetulla Sahyadrensis   How  do they named? All the vine snakes were assigned names related to the locality or based on a morphological character but Ahaetulla Fransworthi named after the scientist Dr. Hubert Fransworth. In Western Ghats  six species of vine snakes endemic is found.   Try Free Mock Test -  upsc 2021 Try today's current affairs MCQs on Netmock 

QRSAM: Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missil

Why in news?India successfully test-fires Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile system India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation, DRDO has tested QRSAM missle which achieved  success in a direct hit pilotless target aircraft at medium range and altitude. Important facts:
  • The launch was taken place from the Integrated Test Range at chandipur off the Odisha coast.
  • QRSAM is an Indigenous missile system.
  • Weapon system of QRSAM have been manufactured through public sector company BEL, Bharat Dynamic Limited, BDL and through a private palyer L&T.
Important Features:
  • Missile system has  active radio frequency seekers
  • Electro-mechanical actuation system
  • QRSAM is a  Surface to air missile primarily designed to shield moving armoured columns of the Army energy aerial attacks.
  • Range: 25km to 30km
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Bru Migrants ST residence certificates

Why in news? As Tripura prepares to resettle Bru migrants, an umbrella organsiation of the displaced community has sought immediate issuance of Scheduled Tribe and Permanent residence certificates as a formal recognitions of their domicile status. Important Facts:
  • Bru Migrants originally belongs to  Mizoram and they migrated to Tripura since 1997.
  • The Brus have been lodged in a relief camps of North Tripura since 1997.
  • In the month of January Centre had signed an agreement with Tripura to resolve the crisis of resettlement.
  • In order to resettlement of Brus the central government announced a Rs. 600 crore package for over 33000 migrants.
  • Mizoram Bru displaced peoples Forum (MIBDPF) in a letter to Tripura demanded issuance of ST and permanent certificates for the Brus.
  • In September Tripura government had approved 15 spots for resettling the Bru migrants after a series of discussion.
  • While some of the rehabilitation spots are still contested either by the migrants or the local residents.
  • The Bru community leader has proposed few spots under the discussion.
Who are against the Bru resettlement?
  • Kanchanpur Magarik Suraksha Mancha and Mizo Convention   the two local ethnic forums of North Tripura are against the resettlement of Brus. 
Source :  Indian Express   Try Free Mock Test -  upsc 2021 Try today's current affairs MCQs on Netmock 

Northeast Monsoons shows sign of revival

Why in news?   As per the Indian Metrological Department have warned of heavy rain accompanied by thunder and lightning across Tamil Nadu and the rest of south Indian states. Imprtant facts:
  • This year the southwest monsoon withdrawal was late and after delayed onset followed by subdued activity, the northeast monsoon has finally shown some signs of revival over the southern peninsula of India, which is a relief for Tamil Nadu. 
  • Two consecutive streams of easterly winds have turned the winter monsoon active.
  • Hence the keeping in eyes about the rain the IMD has warned peninsular Indian states that heavy rainfall is possible till 18th November.
  • A trough in easterlies in lower level is likely to affect the southern peninsula.
  • The middle of this week monsoon activity had picked up inparts of Karnatka Andhra Pradesh and  Tamil Nadu since these states had not received any significant rain since October 28 when the northeast monsoon arrived over the peninsula.
  • More than any other states rainfall associated with the Northeast monsoon is crucial for Tamil Nadu which receives approximately 70 per cent of its annual rainfall between October and December.
  • Northeast monsoon is important for Tamil Nadu because the Southwest monsoon does not rain on the Tamil Nadu.
  • Tamil Nadu receives rainfall due to Monsoon retreat behavior of the Indian monsoon.
  • From October 1 to November 12 the peninsular region has experienced lesser rainfall and remained Lakshadweep with 37 per cent of rainfall remained the most rain deficient in the Peninsula. 
What is the reason behind low rainfall? As per the IMD the rainfall below the normal level in this season over extreme southern parts of Tamil Nadu is due to one of the drivers for subdued rain was the La Nina conditions which was prevailing since early August.  What is La Nina? La Nina is the cooler than normal sea surface temperatures recorded along the east and central pacific Ocean. It influences the rainfall over India.  
  • La Nina  literlally translated as  a  little girl in Spanish. Under this condition the water temperature in the Eastern Pacific gets colder than normal. 
  • As a result a strong high pressure created over the eastern equatorial pacific ocean and in contrary low pressure emerges over the western pacific ocean and in Asian countries coast
  • There is drought condition along the Peru coast and Ecuador coast.
  • Due to La Nina the possibility of good monsoon creates in India and beneficial for the Indian monsoon.
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